1. Home page
  2. Contents
  3. Central Sleep Apnea, Alveolar Hypoventilation, and Hypoxemia
  1. Home page
  2. Contents
  3. Central Sleep Apnea, Alveolar Hypoventilation, and Hypoxemia
Medical and paramedical


Central Sleep Apnea, Alveolar Hypoventilation, and Hypoxemia

Although obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is the main sleep-disordered breathing in patients with trisomy 21, other disorders such as central sleep apnea, alveolar hypoventilation, and hypoxemia should not be ignored. They are more frequent than in the general population.

In this video and accompanying technical sheet, Dr. Hervé Walti, a pediatrician at the Jérôme Lejeune Institute, tells you more about the prevalence, diagnosis, etiological hypotheses, consequences, and management of these sleep disorders.

  • Boudewyns A, Van de Heyning P, Verhulst S. Central apneas in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: prevalence and effect of upper airway surgery. Sleep Med. 2016 Sep;25:93-97. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2016.05.018. Epub 2016 Sep 13. PMID: 27823724.
  • de Carvalho TD, de Abreu LC, Mustacchi Z, Vanderlei LC, Godoy MF, Raimundo RD, Ferreira Filho C, da Silva TD, Guilhoto L, Perico V, Finotti VR, Ferreira C. Cardiac autonomic modulation of children with Down syndrome. Pediatr Cardiol. 2015 Feb;36(2):344-9. doi: 10.1007/s00246-014-1012-5. Epub 2014 Aug 28. PMID: 25164236.
  • Del-Río Camacho G, Medina Castillo L, Rodríguez-Catalán J, Soto Insuga V, Gómez García T. Central sleep apnea in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and improvement following adenotonsillectomy. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2019 Nov;54(11):1670-1675. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24469. Epub 2019 Aug 2. PMID: 31373175.
  • Dudoignon B, Amaddeo A, Frapin A, Thierry B, de Sanctis L, Arroyo JO, Khirani S, Fauroux B. Obstructive sleep apnea in Down syndrome: Benefits of surgery and noninvasive respiratory support. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Aug;173(8):2074-2080. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.38283. Epub 2017 May 24. PMID: 28544488.
  • Fan Z, Ahn M, Roth HL, Li L, Vaughn BV. Sleep Apnea and Hypoventilation in Patients with Down Syndrome: Analysis of 144 Polysomnogram Studies. Children (Basel). 2017 Jun 30;4(7):55. doi: 10.3390/children4070055. PMID: 28665356; PMCID: PMC5532547.
  • Felix O, Amaddeo A, Olmo Arroyo J, Zerah M, Puget S, Cormier-Daire V, Baujat G, Pinto G, Fernandez-Bolanos M, Fauroux B. Central sleep apnea in children: experience at a single center. Sleep Med. 2016 Sep;25:24-28. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2016.07.016. Epub 2016 Aug 31. PMID: 27823711.
  • Ferri R, Curzi-Dascalova L, Del Gracco S, Elia M, Musumeci SA, Stefanini MC. Respiratory patterns during sleep in Down’s syndrome:importance of central apnoeas. J Sleep Res. 1997 Jun;6(2):134-41. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2869.1997.00030.x. PMID: 9377533.
  • Hughes BH, Brinton JT, Ingram DG, Halbower AC. The Impact of Altitude on Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Children Dwelling at High Altitude: A Crossover Study. Sleep. 2017 Sep 1;40(9):zsx120. doi: 10.1093/sleep/zsx120. PMID: 28934528; PMCID: PMC5806567.
  • McLaren AT, Bin-Hasan S, Narang I. Diagnosis, management and pathophysiology of central sleep apnea in children. Paediatr Respir Rev. 2019 Apr;30:49-57. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2018.07.005. Epub 2018 Jul 25. PMID: 30170958.
  • Naime S, Weiss M, Lew J, Aziz J, Pan Q, Allen M, Xuchen X, Weinstock J, Nino G. Central breathing abnormalities in children with trisomy 21: Effect of age, sex, and concomitant OSA. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2021 Feb;56(2):472-478. doi: 10.1002/ppul.25157. Epub 2020 Dec 14. PMID: 33146451.
  • O’Driscoll DM, Foster AM, Ng ML, Yang JS, Bashir F, Wong S, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Anderson V, Walker AM, Trinder J, Horne RS. Central apnoeas have significant effects on blood pressure and heart rate in children. J Sleep Res. 2009 Dec;18(4):415-21. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2869.2009.00766.x. Epub 2009 Aug 31. PMID: 19732317.
  • O’Driscoll DM, Horne RS, Davey MJ, Hope SA, Anderson V, Trinder J, Walker AM, Nixon GM. Cardiac and sympathetic activation are reduced in children with Down syndrome and sleep disordered breathing. Sleep. 2012 Sep 1;35(9):1269-75. doi: 10.5665/sleep.2084. PMID: 22942505; PMCID: PMC3413804.
  • Paruthi S, Rosen CL, Wang R, Weng J, Marcus CL, Chervin RD, Stanley JJ, Katz ES, Amin R, Redline S. End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Measurement during Pediatric Polysomnography: Signal Quality, Association with Apnea Severity, and Prediction of Neurobehavioral Outcomes. Sleep. 2015 Nov 1;38(11):1719-26. doi: 10.5665/sleep.5150. PMID: 26414902; PMCID: PMC4813353.
  • Praud JP. Long-Term Non-invasive Ventilation in Children: Current Use, Indications, and Contraindications. Front Pediatr. 2020 Nov 5;8:584334. doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.584334. PMID: 33224908; PMCID: PMC7674588.
  • Richard N, Beydon N, Berdah L, Corvol H, Aubertin G, Taytard J. Nocturnal hypoventilation in Down syndrome children with or without sleep apnea. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2020 May;55(5):1246-1253. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24703. Epub 2020 Feb 28. PMID: 32110849.
  • Siriwardhana LS, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Mann DL, Landry SA, Edwards BA, Horne RSC. Children with down syndrome and sleep disordered breathing display impairments in ventilatory control. Sleep Med. 2021 Jan;77:161-169. doi: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.12.005. Epub 2020 Dec 8. PMID: 33373902.
  • Thottam PJ, Choi S, Simons JP, Kitsko DJ. Effect of Adenotonsillectomy on Central and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children with Down Syndrome. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Oct;153(4):644-8. doi: 10.1177/0194599815587877. Epub 2015 Jun 4. PMID: 26044789.
  • Trucco F, Chatwin M, Semple T, Rosenthal M, Bush A, Tan HL. Sleep disordered breathing and ventilatory support in children with Down syndrome. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2018 Oct;53(10):1414-1421. doi: 10.1002/ppul.24122. Epub 2018 Jul 10. PMID: 29992744.
  • Wong W, Rosen D. Isolated mild sleep-associated hypoventilation in children with Down syndrome. Arch Dis Child. 2017 Sep;102(9):821-824. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2016-311694. Epub 2017 Apr 13. PMID: 28408467.

Similar contents

See all content

Sign Up

Sign up to receive our newsletter and stay informed of new content!

        Institut Jérôme Lejeune
        37 rue des Volontaires
        75015 PARIS

        Institut Jérôme Lejeune
        37 rue des Volontaires 75015 PARIS

        Follow the Jérôme Lejeune Institute’s
        news on our social media accounts

        Follow the Jérôme Lejeune Institute’s news on our social media accounts

         Votre inscription a bien été prise en compte