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  3. Depression
Medical and paramedical




With psychiatrist Dr. Laura Cretu, Dr. Hervé Walti, pediatrician at the Institut Jérôme Lejeune, talks to us in this video and the accompanying fact sheet about depression in people with Down’s syndrome.


Discover the entire “Psychiatric Manifestations” chapter by clicking on “Chapter outline” to the right of the image at the top of the page.

Discover below the presentation associated with this video.

  • Ailey, S. H., Miller, A. M., Heller, T., & Smith, E. V., Jr. Evaluating an Interpersonal Model of Depression among adults with Down syndrome. Research and Theory for Nursing Practice, 2006; 20, 229–246.
  • Anthonio G, Malik F, Ghomeshi A, Lopez O, Gralnik L. Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy, Developmental Regression, Depression and Catatonia in an Adolescent With Down Syndrome: A Case Report. Cureus. 2022 Nov 26;14(11).
  • Aylward, E. H., Li, Q., Honeycutt, N. A., Warren, A. C., Pulsifer, M. B., Barta, P. E., et al. MRI volumes of the hippocampus and amygdala in adults with Down’s syndrome with and without dementia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1999 ; 156, 564–568.
  • Byrne, C., & Seyfort, B. Complications in the diagnosis and treatment of depression in persons with Down syndrome. The NADD Bulletin, 1998; 1, 103–106.
  • Capone GT, Aidikoff JM, Taylor K, Natalie Rykiel N. Adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome presenting to a medical clinic with depression: Co-morbid obstructive sleep apnea. Am J Med Genet Part A 2013 ; 161A:2188–2196.
  • Chang C-H, Chen S-J, Liu C-Y. Pediatric sleep apnea and depressive disorders risk: A population-based 15-year retrospective cohort study. 2017; PLoS ONE 12(7): e0181430.
  • Collacott, R. A., & Cooper, S. A.. Adaptive behavior after depressive illness in Down’s syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1992 ; 180, 468–470.
  • Cooper, S. A., & Collacott, R. A. Prognosis of depression in Down’s syndrome. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1993; 181, 204–205.
  • Cooper, S. A., & Collacott, R. A. Clinical features and diagnostic criteria of depression in Down’s syndrome. British Journal of Psychiatry, 1994; 165, 399–403
  • Dykens EM, Shah B, Davis B, Baker C, Fife T, Fitzpatrick J. Psychiatric disorders in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome and other intellectual disabilities. J Neurodev Disord. 2015;7(1):9.
  • Fletcher RJ, Barnhill J, Cooper S DM-ID-2 : Diagnostic manual, intellectual disability : a textbook of diagnosis of mental disorders in persons with intellectual disability. NADD Publication,  2016.
  • Gensheimer, P.M., Meighen, K.G. & McDougle, C.J. ECT in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome and Treatment-Refractory Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities 2002; 14, 291–295.
  • Hurley A. Two Cases of Suicide Attempt by Patients With Down’s Syndrome. Psychiatric services (Washington, D.C.). 1998; 49. 1618-9. 10.1176/ps.49.12.1618.
  • Joffe, R. T. Is the thyroid still important in major depression? Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 2006; 31, 367–368.
  • Lindsay, W. R., Howells, L., & Pitcaithly, D. Cognitive therapy for depression with individuals with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 1993; 66, 135–141.
  • Ludi E, Ballard ED, Greenbaum R, Pao M, Bridge J, Reynolds W, Horowitz L. Suicide risk in youth with intellectual disabilities: the challenges of screening. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2012 Jun;33(5):431-40.
  • Ly M, Yu GZ, Mian A, Cramer A, Meysami S, Merrill DA, Samara A, Eisenstein SA, Hershey T, Babulal GM, Lenze EJ, Morris JC, Benzinger TLS, Raji CA. Neuroinflammation: A Modifiable Pathway Linking Obesity, Alzheimer’s disease, and Depression. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2023 Oct;31(10):853-866.
  • McCabe, M. P., McGillivray, J. A., & Newton, D. C. Effectiveness of treatment programmes for depression among adults with mild/moderate intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2006; 50, 239–247.
  • Pinter, J. D., Eliez, S., Schmitt, J. E., Capone, G. T., & Reiss, A. L. Neuroanatomy of Down’s syndrome: A high-resolution MRI study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2001; 158, 1659–1665.
  • Protocole National de Diagnostic et de Soins (PNDS) Trisomie 21 (2020). https://www.has-sante.fr/upload/docs/application/pdf/2020-01/pnds_trisomie_21.pdf.
  • Rivelli A, Fitzpatrick V, Chaudhari S, Chicoine L, Jia G, Rzhetsky A, Chicoine B. Prevalence of Mental Health Conditions Among 6078 Individuals With Down Syndrome in the United States. J Patient Cent Res Rev. 2022 Jan 17;9(1):58-63.
  • Shadan S, Almarzooqi S, Sultan MA. Behavioral Activation (BA) in the Management of Depression in an Adolescent with Down Syndrome in Dubai. Case Rep Psychiatry. 2021 Sep 18;2021:7112034.
  • Seidl, R., Kaehler, S. T., Prast, H., Singewald, N., Cairns, N., Gratzer, M., et al. Serotonin (5-HT) in brains of adult patients with Down syndrome. Journal of Neural Transmission. Supplementum,1999; 57, 221–232.
  • Smiley, E., & Cooper, S. A. Intellectual disabilities, depressive episode, diagnostic criteria and Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders for Use with Adults with Learning Disabilities/Mental Retardation (DC-LD). Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2003; 47, 62–71
  • Startin CM, D’Souza H, Ball G, Hamburg S, Hithersay R, Hughes KMO, Massand E, Karmiloff-Smith A, Thomas MSC; LonDownS Consortium; Strydom A. Health comorbidities and cognitive abilities across the lifespan in Down syndrome. J Neurodev Disord. 2020 Jan 23;12(1):4
  • Thom RP, Palumbo ML, Thompson C, McDougle CJ, Ravichandran CT. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors for the Treatment of Depression in Adults with Down Syndrome: A Preliminary Retrospective Chart Review Study. Brain Sci. 2021 Sep 15;11(9):1216.
  • Whittle, N., Sartori, S. B., Dierssen, M., Lubec, G., & Singewald, N. Fetal Down syndrome brains exhibit aberrant levels of neurotransmitters critical for normal brain development. Pediatrics, 2007 ; 120, e1465–e1471.
  • Willner, P. The effectiveness of psychotherapeutic interventions for people with learning disabilities: A critical overview. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 2005; 49, 73–85

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